Earth’s atmosphere contains certain gases called greenhouses gases (mostly water wapor and carbon dioxide) which act to keep the lower layers of the atmosphere warmer that they otherwise would be without those gases. “Global Warming” is the expected slow, gradual warming of the lower layers of the Earth’s lower atmosphere by the slowly increasing concentrations of man-made greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, and to a lesser extent methane.
These gases trap infrared radiation, which is th “heat radiation” that cools the Earth. (In order for the Earth to remain at a constant temperature, the Earth must lose as much energy through infrared radiation as it gains from the sun. This concept is called energy balance.) The burning of fossil fuels, mainly petroleum and coal, produces carbon dioxide as one of the by-products. As of 2003, the concentration of carbon dioxide is over 50% higher than it was before the start of the industrial revolution in the late 1800’s—-which is when the burning of fossil fuels really took off.
Some of the reasons that cause climate changes are everyday evident happenings such as the smoke from a fire or the fumes that come out of a car exhaust. They contain lots of visible gases that are very harmful to our environment. Power stations, factories and cars all burn fuels and therefore they all produce polluting gases. Nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide react with the tiny droplets of water in clouds to form sulphuric and nitric acids which is how rain is formed. As a result, there are changes in the climate. There are ways to reduce climate changes.
Firstly, we need to find alternative sources of energy. The government needs to invest in research and way to produce energy. Other sources like hydroelectric and nuclear power can be used. Other sources could be solar energy or windmills, but how reliable would these be in places where it is not very windy or sunny? The benefits and cause have to be weighed before a decision is made.
Secondly, we have to conserve resources. Greater subsidies of public transport by the government will encourage people to use public transportation more. Individuals can make an effort to save energy by switching off lights, using energy-saving appliances, walking, cycling and car-pooling – all of which will reduce air pollution.
Thirdly, lakes and rivers can be powered by adding limestones to neutralize the water- this is called “liming”. However, this process is expensive and the effects are temporary. The people of Norway and Sweden have successfully used this technology while a major “liming” program is currently taking place in Wales.
Finally, the government needs to spend more money on pollution control even if this means an increase in the price of electricity. Climate changes are due to irresponsible human attitude, therefore it should be the humans who pay for their doings. EVERY ACTION HAS A REACTION.